The survival benefit of allo-HCT was investigated in 1114 CMML patients with time-dependent analyses and multistate models.
Performing allo-HCT before transformation decreases life expectancy in lower-risk patients but may be considered in higher-risk patients.
To determine the survival benefit of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) in chronic myelomonocytic leukemias (CMML), we assembled a retrospective cohort of CMML patients 18-70 years old diagnosed between 2000 and 2014 from an international CMML dataset (n = 730) and the EBMT registry (n = 384). The prognostic impact of allo-HCT was analyzed through univariable and multivariable time-dependent models and with a multistate model, accounting for age, sex, CMML prognostic scoring system (low or intermediate-1 grouped as lower-risk, intermediate-2 or high as higher-risk) at diagnosis, and AML transformation. In univariable analysis, lower-risk CMMLs had a 5-year overall survival (OS) of 20% with allo-HCT vs 42% without allo-HCT (P < .001). In higher-risk patients, 5-year OS was 27% with allo-HCT vs 15% without allo-HCT (P = .13). With multistate models, performing allo-HCT before AML transformation reduced OS in patients with lower-risk CMML, and a survival benefit was predicted for men with higher-risk CMML. In a multivariable analysis of lower-risk patients, performing allo-HCT before transformation to AML significantly increased the risk of death within 2 years of transplantation (hazard ratio [HR], 3.19; P < .001), with no significant change in long-term survival beyond this time point (HR, 0.98; P = .92). In higher-risk patients, allo-HCT significantly increased the risk of death in the first 2 years after transplant (HR 1.46; P = .01) but not beyond (HR, 0.60; P = .09). Performing allo-HCT before AML transformation decreases life expectancy in lower-risk patients but may be considered in higher-risk patients.